belligerency

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1 The right of belligerency of the state will not be recognized'.
2 Political infighting over recognizing Cuban belligerency took place in Grant's Cabinet.
3 Recognizing Cuban belligerency would have jeopardized settlement and arbitration with Great Britain.
4 The recognition of Cuban belligerency would have jeopardized negotiations between Britain and the United States.
5 Libya, Syria, and not the extraordinary belligerency in Ukraine are Obama's policies.
6 Kar usually drinks to belligerency .
7 In February 1870, Senator John Sherman authored a Senate resolution that would have recognized Cuban belligerency .
8 Rather than reacting as he had to the earlier recognition of belligerency , Seward let this matter drop.
9 American sentiment favored the Cuban rebels and President Grant appeared to be on the verge of acknowledging Cuban belligerency .
10 While military spending was constrained by the renunciation of belligerency , this does not mean that defence expenditure is insignificant.
11 Many Americans rallied behind the rebellion and began to sell war bonds in support of the recognition of Cuban belligerency .
12 It remained in an official state of belligerency until 1939 as it was not included in the Treaty of Versailles.
13 The "New York Herald" demanded Secretary Hamilton Fish's resignation and that the U.S. recognize Cuban belligerency .
14 When Adams made his protest to Russell on the recognition of Confederate belligerency , Dayton made a similar protest to Thouvenel.
15 This attitude of the Nigerian authorities confirms the trend initiated with the Spanish Civil War and referred to above (see paras. 101-102), whereby the central authorities of a State where civil strife has broken out prefer to withhold recognition of belligerency but, at the same time, extend to the conflict the bulk of the body of legal rules concerning conflicts between States.
16 Conduct", it was stated that, to repress the rebellion in Biafra, the Federal troops were duty-bound to respect the rules of the Geneva Conventions and in addition were to abide by a set of rules protecting civilians and civilian objects in the theatre of military operations. (See A.H.M. Kirk-Greene, 1 Crisis and Conflict in Nigeria, A Documentary Sourcebook 1966-1969 , 455-57 (1971).) This "Operational Code of Conduct" shows that in a large-scale and protracted civil war the central authorities, while refusing to grant recognition of belligerency , deemed it necessary to apply not only the provisions of the Geneva Conventions designed to protect civilians in the hands of the enemy and captured combatants, but also general rules on the conduct of hostilities that are normally applicable in international conflicts.
17 The former category applied to armed conflicts between sovereign States (unless there was recognition of belligerency in a civil war), while the latter applied to armed violence breaking out in the territory of a sovereign State.
18 Whenever armed violence erupted in the international community, in traditional international law the legal response was based on a stark dichotomy: belligerency or insurgency.
19 Over the decades, there were several incidents that led to a war-like situation and even war, which took mutual belligerency up a notch.
20 It was on the initiative of the German delegates that the old signal of distress, "CQD," was abolished by that Convention in favour of the modern "SOS." The Hun has as consistently violated the international law of neutrality as he has that of belligerency , and in so doing has aroused the resentment of many nations whose inclination it was to remain strictly aloof, if not to exercise a neutrality beneficent to the Central Powers.
21 Resolution 242, which became the basis for the peace process negotiations begun in Madrid in 1981, calls for a just and lasting Middle East peace to include withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from territories occupied in 1967; termination of the state of belligerency ; and acknowledgment of the sovereignty, territorial integrity, and political independence of all regional states and of their right to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries.
22 Despite these stipulated disadvantages and possible alternatives to Turkish entry into the war, the JCS and State Department decided that Turkey should be urged to sever diplomatic relations with Germany as soon as practicable as a first step toward belligerency .
23 The thousands of gallant Italians engaged in acts of war at this moment are entitled to the rights and protection of belligerency in their relations both to the Allies and to Germany.
24 That is good and it is an ideal solution to the world's past problems of belligerency - as long as all of the parties involved respect this objective by acts as well as words.
25 Because of the belligerency of the White settler regime, ZAPU added the armed resistance to its strategy of non-violence, and went on to build a formidable army.
26 Instead, Sadat promised that Egypt "takes its decisions freely and independently," and assured President Nixon that if the United States "proves friendly to us, we shall be ten times as friendly."(22) In February 1971, in perhaps his most overt statement about the Soviet presence since becoming president, Sadat told Gunnar Jarring, the United Nation's special representative assigned to the Arab-Israeli conflict, that Egypt would terminate all states of claims of belligerency with Israel, as well as respect Israel's "right to live within secure and recognized boundaries."(23) Though there was nothing in his statement to Jarring that directly mentioned the removal of the Soviet presence from Egypt, there was little doubt that by coming to terms with Israel Sadat would quickly eliminate the need for maintaining the vast Soviet military presence in his country.
27 Palestinian belligerency in these first few months was "disorganised, sporadic and localised and for months remained chaotic and uncoordinated, if not undirected".
28 Surprised by the unexpected victory of Israel in 1948 over the invading Arab forces, the Vatican saw the Christian presence in the Holy Land diminish, claiming that 70% of the local Christians had fled from their homes as a consequence of the acts of Israel's belligerency .
29 The decision in effect meant that Washington was conceding the rights of belligerency to those who took up arms against it at sea.
30 Luke Duffy, secretary of the Labour Party, said that the "... government was guilty of duplicity and near belligerency behind a facade of neutrality.
31 It called for withdrawal from occupied territories and for "termination of all claims or states of belligerency " and mutual "acknowledgment of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence" by Israel and the other states in the area, and recognized the right of "every state in the area" to live "free from threats or acts of force" within "secure and recognized boundaries".
32 Having renounced war, the possession of war potential, the right of belligerency , and the possession of nuclear weaponry, Japan held the view that it should possess only the minimum defense necessary to face external threats.
33 As the year 1941 waned and the United States approached closer and closer to active belligerency , "Woolsey" began escorting convoys between the United States and Iceland.
34 Secretary Rawlins, however, was strongly in favor of the recognition of Cuban belligerency and even advocated war with Spain if necessary.
35 Also at stake was negotiations for settlement of the Alabama Claims, that included the claim the British had recognized Confederate belligerency during the Civil War.
36 In February, 1945, after the Allies made its invitation to the inaugural meeting of the United Nations (along with the invitations of several other nations) conditional on full belligerency , Turkey declared war on the Axis powers, but no Turkish troops ever saw combat.
37 Although Peru did not declare war on Germany and Japan until 1945 (Peru declared a "state of belligerency "), the Peruvian Navy patrolled the Panama Canal area.
38 In 1943, the German submarine "U-505" destroyed a Colombian schooner, which caused Colombia to declare a "status of belligerency " against Germany on 26 November 1943.
39 Russell was non-committal, and on May 12, Queen Victoria announced British neutrality combined with recognition that a state of belligerency existed.
40 Confederate forces charged all the raiders with "acts of unlawful belligerency "; the civilians were charged as unlawful combatants and spies.